Some heart birth defects are: lethal cardiac anomalies, left hypoplastic heart, malformed aorta, no aortic valve, and malformed mitral valve.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) happens when parts of the left side of the heart (mitral valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, and aorta) do not develop completely. HLHS is present at birth which also means the condition is congenital.
Fetal cardiac anomalies are common; early detection of these anomalies enables early referral to care centers with the right expertise. A routine antenatal ultrasound administered between 18 and 22 weeks enables detection of most of these kinds of malformations.
Heart Birth Defects
Congenital anomalies are the reasons for a sizeable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality. Approximately 3 percent of newborns have a serious handicap or potentially lethal condition; in long-term studies the frequency is much higher.
In patients with this condition, the left side of the heart is unable to send enough blood to the body. As a result, the right side of the heart must maintain the circulation for both the lungs and the body. The right ventricle can support the circulation to both the lungs and the body for a while, but this extra workload eventually causes the right side of the heart to fail.
What defines HLHS?
- Most of the structures on the left side of the heart are too small and underdeveloped to provide enough red blood flow for the baby's needs.
- The small left ventricle, which needs to be large enough and strong enough to pump blood out to the body, doesn't function effectively.
- Other left heart structures can be underdeveloped in varying degrees—including the mitral valve, the aortic valve, and the aorta itself.
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